By Julia Davydova
This is an leading edge examine of version between linguistic goods in what has been generally defined as current ideal contexts. The research bargains analyses of latest info units taken from an curiously various set of non-native Englishes. whereas comprising conventional second-language forms similar to Indian English, Singapore English, East African English within the research of the current ideal, the examine extends its scope to hide learner sorts of English spoken in Russia and Germany.
The writer takes her reader on an awesome variationist trip world wide, revealing bankruptcy after bankruptcy the commonalities and modifications within the styles of use of the English current excellent and, ultimately, constructing a complete viewpoint bearing in mind strong generalisations throughout a number of information sets.
Moreover, empirical information serves as a baseline for taking a stand on a couple of at present debated concerns in variationist sociolinguistics, examine on moment language acquisition in addition to study on linguistic complexity. hence working at the interface of assorted linguistic paradigms, the e-book addresses an enormous viewers together with scholars of linguistics and researchers with a number of fields of specialization.
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Extra info for The Present Perfect in Non-Native Englishes: A Corpus-Based Study of Variation
The EU issues education figures for 26 expanding circle European countries which are members of the EU or EEA or candidates for that status (Pilos 2001), and in all but two English is the most studied foreign language. The age of beginning English study is gradually being lowered and it is not unusual to start before the age of 10 (Pilos 2001). e. e. through individuals representing subcultures in countries all over the world. In such social contexts, English is used as a lingua franca by the members of subcultures associated with computers and hip-hop, heavy-metal and rock music (cf Melchers and Shaw 2003).
1. Foreign-speaker varieties of English 19 losing out on deals when they do not folly understand how English is being used by non-natives (cf. Power 2005). Furthermore, non-native speakers of English (including foreign speakers) outnumber native speakers 3:1 (cf. Crystal 2004). This trend is likely to continue, as English has become a language of technology and commerce and is a target language for an ever growing number of population groups. Consider the following figures from Graddol (1997: 10): First-language speakers: 375 million Second-language speakers: 375 million Foreign-language speakers: 750 million The following citation illustrates the impact the English language has had on various spheres of life in different countries all over the world: One out of five of the world's population speak English to some level of competence.
1. Acrolectal varieties of Indian English Phonology First and foremost, many (if not all) varieties of IndEng are rhotic, thus demonstrating an obvious similarity to Standard American English. The IndEng M is, however, often trilled or tapped (as in Scottish English). Second, StEng alveolar hi and /d/ may be pronounced as retroflex. Similarly, the voiceless stops /p/, hi, Dd may be unaspirated. Here, a certain amount of variation is expected as a result of different levels of mastery of English.