The New Geography of Innovation: Clusters, Competitiveness by Xavier Tinguely

By Xavier Tinguely

It is now good proven that innovation is the most engine of competitiveness and fiscal progress. besides the fact that, during this sleek fast moving international, the inherent nature of the innovation procedure has replaced. at the one hand, the speedy technological revolution or the emergence of recent nations at the foreign financial degree has underlined a shift in the direction of a globalization of the financial system. nonetheless, one other pattern in the direction of a spatial focus of financial and cutting edge job has been pointed out. regardless of the widening of the geographical techniques provided by way of globalization, creation and innovation nonetheless seem quite focused in particular destinations and clusters are the final word illustration of this regionalization move.
The New Geography of Innovation assesses either the theoretically and empirically intertwined – yet unusually nonetheless quite unexplored – dating among innovation, clusters and multinational companies in modern economic system. in response to a different database of patent purposes on the eu Patent place of work, this ebook not just emphasizes the marked discrepancies when it comes to creative functionality among Swiss areas but additionally identifies the country's major artistic clusters, deals new insights at the internationalization of the innovation method and offers specific proof of the significance of international clusters as a resource of recent knowledge.

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The distinction between product and process innovation has been diffused in many fields of the economic literature. In the frame of the technology life-cycle theory,10 the literature on technology management, for instance, holds a central place in the analysis of the dynamics of product and process innovation (Mueller and Tilton, 1969; Utterback and Abernathy, 1975; Clark, 1985; Klepper, 1996; Adner and Levinthal, 2001). The main pattern described by this theory emphasized that product innovations are initially the dominant mode of innovation until successive product innovations ultimately yield a “dominant design” when the optimal product configuration is reached.

Writing is another example of an invention that developed progressively and independently in parts of Eurasia and America between 3,300 and 900 BC (Diamond, 1998, p. 10). It is nevertheless worth noting that although this phenomenon could still happen today, the globalization of the world economy, the improvement in communications and the greater diffusion of knowledge have tended to lessen the probability of its occurrence. On the other hand, the time lag between invention and innovation may be very different according to the industry or the context (Fagerberg, 2005, p.

One of the reasons given to explain this relative lack of interest lies in the fact that Schumpeter’s disruptive theory was hard to formalize empirically (De Vecchi, 1995, p. 3). As presented in the next section, advances in mathematics nevertheless progressively allowed growth theorists to incorporate some of Schumpeter’s main ideas into their growth models (Fagerberg, 2005, p. 18). However, Schumpeter indirectly influenced much research in fields such as growth, international trade or competitiveness (Fagerberg, 2005, p.

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