The History of Western Art by Erwin O. Christensen

By Erwin O. Christensen

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The head cloth with the serpent indicated a king, the carving of the face was to resemble Khafre, whose valley temple is close by. Though mutilated, the Sphinx is still an impressive monument. It has been excavated repeatedly in the course of history, but the shifting sands of the desert have as often obliterated the work. paved open temple was discovered between the paws. Temples. The temple, constructed on the post-and-lintel system, was conceived as a lasting monument for a god, not a place for a congregation.

The temple, constructed on the post-and-lintel system, was conceived as a lasting monument for a god, not a place for a congregation. Only the priests and kings were permitted to enter the sanctuary, a small dark chamber at the far end of the entrance. The small Ptolemaic temple of Edfu (111. 24) on the Nile above Thebes is basically like the Great Temple of Amon at Karnak. Both their plans contain the same four elements: a pylon, or entrance gate, flanked by massive sloping towers with flagpoles (111.

In times of strife, these rock-cut tombs were also robbed of their gold and treasure, forcing the priests to hustle the royal mummies from one hideout to another. Ramesses III had to be reburied three times. Egyptian architecture developed few ornamental details; capitals (111. 27) are the most significant single features. 27 Types of columns: (a) campaniform; (b) clustered lotus column; (c) simple lotus column; (d) palm column; (e) Hathor-headed column. After Hamlin (1909) 111. Typical are the lotus capitals, representing bud or flower, the palm-leaf capital, and also the Hathor-headed, or Isis, capital.

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