By Robert Benaim
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Extra resources for The design of prestressed concrete bridges : concepts and principles
2 Units Length is measured in millimetres and metres. Load and force are measured in Newtons (N), kilonewtons (1 kN = 103 N) and Meganewtons (1 MN = 106 N). 1 kN is the weight of a heavy person, while 10 kN is approximately 1 ton. Stress is measured in Megapascals, MPa (1 MPa = 1 N/mm2 = 1 MN/m2). Moment is measured in kilonewton metres, kNm, or meganewton metres, MNm. 3 Loads on bridge decks The loads on a bridge deck are made up of: a) Self weight; the weight of the bare concrete structure. b) Superimposed dead loads; the weight of permanent loads applied to the bare concrete structure, such as parapets, footpaths, road surfacing etc.
The SLS includes criteria on the deﬂection of structures when this may affect performance, such as damaging ﬂoor ﬁnishes or interfering with the drainage of rainwater, on their susceptibility to vibrate excessively and, critically, on their durability. Reinforced concrete deteriorates principally by the corrosion of the steel reinforcement within it. 6). The collapse condition is called the Ultimate Limit State (ULS). The structure must not collapse when the loads applied to it are factored up by Load Factors, and the strength of its constituent materials is factored down by Material Factors.
Concrete is brittle in tension, and cannot sustain signiﬁcant tensile stresses. The Romans attempted to reinforce their concrete using bronze bars, but this was not successful, due to the different coefﬁcients of thermal expansion of the two materials. Consequently, its use was limited to structures that were primarily in compression: walls, arches and domes. The great discovery of the nineteenth century was the reinforcement of concrete using iron or steel, which have virtually the same coefﬁcient of expansion as concrete, and which effectively gave it tensile strength.