By J. Turton, J. Hooson
The most important organs of the physique are objectives for chemically-induced results in animals and people. This publication studies the mechanisms of those poisonous results and the structure/functional adjustments which take place within the goal organ tissues as a result of publicity to toxicants together with medicines, agrochemicals, commercial chemical substances, radiation and warmth. The organs of the physique coated comprise the liver, lymphatic procedure, cardiovascular method, breathing tract, lungs, skeleton, epidermis, valuable anxious method, endocrine approach and the reproductive process.
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Additional resources for Target Organ Pathology: A Basic Text
In the dog, submucosal mucous glands are present for lubricating the oesophagus during swallowing. The muscle wall of the oesophagus is composed of oblique coats of striated muscle in the dog and smooth muscle in the rodent, hence the ability of rodents to vomit. The oesophagus enters the stomach at the cardia and the reflux of food and gastric juice is prevented by the tone of the lower oesophageal sphincter which is regulated by cholinergic and serotonergic innervation. 1a) is a simple distensible sac composed of a narrow band of mucous cardiac glands, the fundus and the body which are both lined by oxyntic mucosa, and the antrum which contains prominent lymphoid follicles and leads into the duodenum via the pyloric sphincter.
The physiological processes of the digestive system rank second only to the nervous system in terms of complexity. The autonomic nervous system, both sympathetic and parasympathetic, is intimately involved in the regulation of both gut motility and secretory activity. The diffuse neuroendocrine system is extensively represented in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This makes the gastrointestinal system the largest endocrine organ of the body, although its dispersed neuroendocrine cellular distribution makes it difficult to examine without special techniques which are generally outside the standard battery required in regulatory toxicology.
Gastrin exists in peptide forms of 34 and 17 amino acids and these are subject to further cleavage in the circulation  with the secretogogue N-terminal amino acids show close homology between species. The gastrin molecule is also closely homologous to cholecystokinin (CCK), which regulates bile and pancreatic acinar cell secretion , but secretagogue activity is confined to the stomach and, at high doses, the colon. 6). ECL cells are sited adjacent to parietal cells and the secretagogue action of gastrin is now considered to be mediated via the ECL cell.