Superconductivity by V. L. Ginzburg, E. A. Andryushin

By V. L. Ginzburg, E. A. Andryushin

"What is superconductivity? How was once it found? What are the houses of superconductors, how are they utilized now, and the way are they more likely to develop into known within the close to destiny? those are only a few of the questions which this significant ebook units out to respond to. beginning with the invention of superconductivity over 90 years in the past, the ebook courses the readers in the course of the decades of next exploration, correct as much as the newest sensational findings.Written in a full of life, nontechnical sort, this e-book makes excellent historical past analyzing for any university or university point examine of superconductivity. The authors, who're best professionals within the box, paint particular photographs of the phenomena concerned with out mathematical formalism, beautiful as an alternative to actual intuition."

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If the ring had a resistance other than zero, the current in the ring would decrease and the magnetic field that created such a current would change. The 19 20 SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Fig. 7. Schematic diagram of Onnes' experiment;, A is the source of the current, B is the switch. It is closed so that the curtent circulates in the superconducting contour inside v e s d D,filled with liquid helium. C is a superconducting ring which creates a magnetic field H . In the figure we show the magnetic field lines.

If a sample is in a magnetic field, the transition requires energy expenditure to expel the magnetic field from the sample. This process takes up as much energy as that stored by the magnetic field in the bulk metal. Experiments show that the possibilities of a superconductor are limited in this respect. If the magnetic field exceeds a certain value, it cannot be expelled in the course of the metal cooling, and superconductivity does not occur. Such a magnetic field is called a critical magnetic field for a given material and is denoted by H,.

E. the same atoms may be differently positioned relative to one another (see Fig. 24). A change of the crystal lattice type in a metal occurs upon variation of temperature, pressure or some other parameter. Such a change, as with the occurrence of superconductivity and melting, is a phase transition. 46 SUPERCONDUCTIVITY Fig. 24. As an illustration, we show several possible crystal lattices on a plane. Types of three-dimensional lattices are even more diverse. The influence of the crystal lattice upon superconductivity was demonstrated by the isotope effect discovered in 1950.

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