By John Timbrell
This can be a compilation of questions with solutions for college students of toxicology. The questions are a mix of brief resolution, problem-solving, information interpretation and a number of selection and canopy the entire significant parts of toxicology, together with mechanisms of toxicity, poisonous responses, elements affecting the toxicity of compounds and the metabolism and disposition of poisonous compounds. The e-book must also be worthwhile for certified toxicologists and scientists operating in similar components who're getting ready for inner examinations.
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The therapeutic index is usually defined as: (a) TD50/LD50 (b) ED50/LD50 (c) LD50/ED50 (d) ED50/TD50 (e) LD1/ED99 Q4. m. is equivalent to 1%. (a) True (b) False SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q5. The following is a list of antidotes. Match them up with the right poison. Poison Antidote/antagonist Arsenic Atropine/pralidoxime Cyanide Fuller’s earth Methanol Dimercaprol Paraquat Ethanol Parathion Sodium nitrite/sodium thiosulphate Lead N-Acetylcysteine Paracetamol EDTA Q6. Explain the following: (a) LD50 (b) dosage-response relationship (c) therapeutic index (d) NOEL Q7.
The diffusion coefficient will incorporate physicochemical characteristics of the chemical such as lipophilicity, size, shape, etc. Page 27 A17. (a) The pH partition theory states that only non-ionised lipid soluble compounds will be absorbed by passive diffusion down a concentration gradient. For absorption of a compound to occur through a biological membrane the compound must be lipid soluble and the concentration on the inside of the membrane should be lower than on the outside. Compounds which are ionised at the pH of the biological environment will not normally be able to pass through the membrane by passive diffusion although they may be substrates for active transport processes.
C) Biliary excretion is the elimination of chemicals from the body in the bile. The secretion of bile from the liver involves active transport of substances from the hepatocyte. Therefore the excretion of foreign chemicals may be saturated by high concentrations or affected by metabolic dysfunction in the liver. Excretion of chemicals into the bile is affected by the molecular weight of the chemical, its charge and the species of animal. Thus there is a molecular weight threshold which varies between species (approximately 300 in rats but more like 500 in humans).