By Mohamed Ibrahim Nugud (auth.)
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Extra info for Slavery in the Sudan: History, Documents, and Commentary
Between Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, the word “nigger” was replaced with “African-American,” without equality with Irish-American or Euro-American. 17 He said, We were hoping to see some of our brothers here, who call us the grandsons of Alzubair Pasha,18 to show a change of attitude. We say 12 Sl av e r y i n t h e Su da n frankly to them, yes, we are the grandsons of Alzubair Pasha. We are not avoiding our history. But we take a critical, objective look at it and learn our lessons and take examples with no bitterness.
The second observation pertains to the elaborate studies and analyses produced by historians and sociologists on the origins of many forms of slavery relations and their development in ancient civilizations, such as Pharaonic Egypt, Persia, China, Athens, and Rome. Except for the classic Roman example, those studies rarely follow the disintegration and dwindling or demise of slavery in those civilizations. It is not expected of Dark Age thinkers to care about the disintegration and demise of slavery that was going on under their noses; after all, the riddles of the Dark Ages are yet to be solved.
They remain interpretations by analogy, floating somewhere between fact and fiction, until documents from the period surface in modern-day Aksum or Nubia or in the archives of countries that stole documents, antiquities, and the economic surplus of those kingdoms. The fourth document may easily be considered the polar opposite of the Bakt Treaty; there is no mention of slaves in this document. On the day of his coronation, the Nubian king Shekanda swore allegiance to the sultan of Egypt. He swore to be faithful to Sultan al-Dhahir Baybars Rukn ed-Din wa ed-Duniya a (the cornerstone of faith and worldly affairs).