Semantics: From meaning to text. Volume 3 by Igor Mel'čuk, David Beck, Alain Polguère

By Igor Mel'čuk, David Beck, Alain Polguère

This booklet provides an leading edge and novel method of linguistic semantics, ranging from the concept language should be defined as a mechanism for the expression of linguistic Meanings as specific floor varieties, or Texts. Semantics is particularly that method of ideas that guarantees a transition from a Semantic illustration of the that means of a relatives of synonymous sentences to the Deep-Syntactic illustration of a selected sentence. Framed within the phrases of Meaning-Text linguistics, the current quantity closes the book of the 3 quantity sequence. It discusses intimately a number of linguistic notions an important to the improvement of Meaning-Text types of common languages: semantic and syntactic actants, govt development, lexical services, linguistic connotations, phrasemes, the that means of grammatical instances, and linguistic dependencies. The notions lower than research are illustrated from various languages. Reflecting the author’s life-long commitment to the learn of the semantics and syntax of average language, this booklet is a paradigm-shifting contribution to the language sciences, whose originality and bold will make it crucial interpreting for linguists, anthropologists, semioticians, and computational linguists.

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Garden *from the most harmful weeds’. • A constant participant of type 2 can be expressed under the condition that the Speaker characterizes it explicitly: She can see this only with her left eye or She kissed him with her chocolate-smeared lips. Therefore, such a constant participant of SIT(L) must be considered expressible alongside L, even if conditionally. Let me elaborate the example with the verb SEE: (7) a. ‘X sees Y {with Z}’ = ‘X perceives Y with X’s eyes {Z}, this made possible by light’.

No circumstantial of L has a slot in the deinition of L or is represented by a variable—even if this variable is of a different type than those used for the actants. ) But L can have highly idiomatic syntactic dependents that are not L’s SemAs, and yet still must be indicated in L’s lexical entry. Therefore, a technique is needed to describe the non-actantial subset of phraseologically bound dependents of L in L’s entry, but outside of L’s deinition and government pattern. 3, pp. 18ff. As soon as we get a Synt-dependent P of L that has an idiomatic expression as a function of L but is not a SemA of L, a (standard or non-standard) LF can be introduced to specify the form of P in L’s lexical entry.

Yet the prototypical situation of eating/drinking by humans is to eat/drink using a container. Even domestic animals eat and drink from something: a manger, a bucket, a trough, etc. So why not declare the food/ drink container an optional participant of the eating/drinking situation and introduce the corresponding optional SemA-slot into the deinitions of the verbs? As a result, we have something like ‘X eats/drinks Y (from Z)’; the component in parentheses is an optional SemA-slot. There is another important consideration that makes this solution almost inevitable.

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