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6°C) change in temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion is the same value for PVCO and PVC pipe material. , with pipe spigot inserted into bell joints up to manufacturer’s insertion mark), will accommodate substantial thermal expansion and contraction. 6°C) ∆T for PVC pipe Pipe Length Length Change ft (m) in. 91) Copyright © 2002 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved DESIGN FACTORS Figure 4-6 Length variation of unrestrained PVC pipe as a result of temperature change Copyright © 2002 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved 41 42 PVC PIPE—DESIGN AND INSTALLATION expansion and contraction is not a significant factor in system design within the accepted range of operating temperatures for buried PVC water pipe.
75 Copyright © 2002 American Water Works Association, All Rights Reserved d If soil contains ≥15% sand, add “with sand” to group name. e Gravels with 5 to 12% fines require dual symbols: GW-GM well-graded gravel with silt GW-GC well-graded gravel with clay GP-GM poorly graded gravel with silt GP-GC poorly graded gravel with clay ( D 30 ) Cc = ---------------------------D 10 × D 60 2 a Based on the material passing the 3-in. (75-mm) sieve. b If field sample contained cobbles and/or boulders, add “with cobbles and/or boulders” to group name.
Trench width at pipe springline (Bd) = 18 in. Cover depth (H) = 10 ft. 9) Course-grained soil with fines (GM, GC, SM, SC, GM-GC, GC-SC, and so forth) containing more than 12% fines Course-grained soils with little or no fines (GW, GP, SW, SP, GW-GC, SP-SM, and so forth) containing 12% fines and less Crushed rock and GP with ≤15% sand, max. 25% passing the 3/8-in. sieve, and max. 5% fines. 69) Values for E′ b for in-between soils or borderline proctor densities may be interpolated. Percent proctor density per ASTM D698 and relative density per ASTM D4253 and D4254.