Particle Toxicology by Ken Donaldson, Paul Borm

By Ken Donaldson, Paul Borm

Particle Toxicology integrates the present wisdom in particulate physico-chemistry, cell/molecular  biology and toxicology right into a unmarried quantity. whereas utilizing the classical toxicology paradigm of publicity — dose — reaction, it offers reports at the mechanisms and homes of pathogenic debris and their pathogenic results. The textual content describes how those activities can be with regards to particular web site of deposition, translocation, particle composition, form and the end result of assorted pathogenic strategies related to pro-inflammatory results and inflammatory signaling, oxidative and nitrosative pressure, particulate interactions within the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and valuable frightened structures, in addition to genotoxic results of ultrafine and different debris.

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Vermiculite deposits contain a range of other minerals that were formed at the same time. Of particular concern are vermiculite deposits from some sources that have been found to contain amphibole asbestiform minerals (Van Gosen et al. 0921—CHAPTER 2—16/11/2006—14:49—SJAPPIYAR—15549—XML MODEL C – pp. 13–45 Mineralogy and Structure of Pathogenic Particles 19 2002; Gunter 2004; McDonald, Harris, and Armstrong 2004; Pfau et al. 2005), such as tremolite and actinolite. When subjected to high temperatures, vermiculite has the unusual property of exfoliating or “popping” into worm-like pieces (Latin vermiculare: to breed worms).

2004; Forbes et al. 2004). Minerals are the building blocks of rocks, therefore, on occasion we have to consider assemblages of minerals forming a rock type, which itself has been implicated in adverse respiratory health effects. An example of this would be “bauxite,” the common name for aluminum ore derived from weathered igneous rocks. Bauxite consists of a mixture of aluminum hydroxide minerals, the most abundant of which is gibbsite, plus other major, minor, and trace minerals. There is an occupational respiratory disease unique to bauxite miners, “Shaver’s Disease,” but this has only been linked to the ore “bauxite,” and not to any individual component mineral (Dinman 1988; Radon et al.

3 CHAIN SILICATES The chain silicates are notable as they contain the carcinogenic minerals crocidolite and amosite. Chain silicates are a group of minerals with their tetrahedrons in single or multiple chains, with two oxygen atoms of each tetrahedron forming part of the adjoining tetrahedron. Amphiboles are a group of inosilicate minerals, containing hydroxyl (OH) groups, with double chains of aligned silicate tetrahedra. They exist in two different systems, orthorhombic (orthoamphibole) and monoclinic (clinoamphibole).

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