By Denis Rousseau (Eds.)
Optical recommendations in organic Research
summary: Optical options in organic examine
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Extra resources for Optical Techniques in Biological Research
In the most common experimental setup, œLO = ω0, and an optical frequency spectrum that is symmetric about ω0 will be shifted to a center frequency of zero. Heterodyne detection is somewhat more difficult experimentally, but t Unfortunately, there are conflicting nomenclatures for beating detection methods in the light-scattering literature. A minority of workers prefer a system that is more consistent with other signal-processing techniques. In their system the term "self-beat" replaces homodyne, and the experiment employing a local oscillator of frequency co0 is called homodyne.
Polydispersity effects in QELS data are most often treated by the method of cumulants, introduced by Koppel in 1972. The reader is referred to the original paper for mathematical details, but the principle of this method can be stated simply. If the autocorrelation function C(T) is a true exponential, then its logarithm is a straight line. The first-order term (first cumulant) provides a z-average diffusion coefficient, and the quadratic term, or second cumulant, suitably normalized by the square of the first cumulant, is a good measure of the deviation from expo nentially and thus of the width of the distribution of molecular sizes in the sample.
Other criteria for phototubes include low dark current or dark count, fast response time, and high quantum efficiency. Individual manufacturers have a wide variety of phototubes to select from and will meet individual needs, given an ordered set of criteria. The output of the photomultiplier tube, if it is to be treated as an analog current, is usually passed to ground through a dropping resistor whose mag nitude must give an RC time constant much smaller than the characteristic correlation times to be measured.