By Jeremy Clegg (auth.)
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Extra resources for Multinational Enterprise and World Competition: A Comparative Study of the USA, Japan, the UK, Sweden and West Germany
The original PC did not address directly the precise means by which production transfers from the USA. It could, from a modern perspective, be effected via OFI, licensing, or even diffusion or foreign imitation. However, taking OFI and licensing as the key routes, it is possible to incorporate a microeconomic rationale for the PC stylisation. A straightforward approach is provided by Buckley and Casson (1981). g. Europe), OF! will never precede licensing, licensing will never precede exporting, and consequently OFI will never precede exporting, assuming the firm always adopts the most efficient means of market servicing.
Siddarthan (Lall and Siddarthan, 1982) has equal relevance to our own study of inward OFf in the US. This study sought to explain the share offoreign-owned production in the USA (using data for 1974). The explanatory variables were derived from host-country data, and because of the presumed superiority of US industry it was hypothesised that these variables should be either unrelated or negatively related to foreign shares. Lall and Siddarthan's findings are therefore largely negative, in the sense that the hypotheses which do not explain inward DFf are supported, and because the data are all derived from the host, no measures of foreign ownership advantages that do promote DFf are available.
As new product technology itself eventually becomes standardised, it becomes less costly to transfer to foreign locations. An incentive to transfer the technology exists because when existing products are superseded by even newer models in the USA, and the main markets for the previous generation exist mainly in other developed countries, which also have lower wage costs, production will be more profitable outside the USA. It is even tenable that what residual demand there is in the USA for older generations of products will be catered for by imports.