By J.J. Dagenais
This essay is, first, a theoretical and old examine of a few classical medical methods of learning man or woman on the earth. The extra with no trouble obtainable and regularly mentioned "models" of being human have been selected for evaluate right here, yet structuralism is integrated simply because i think it is going to have ,the related impression in the US because it has had in France, and that i desire that American readers may be forewarned approximately what will be ideologically at stake sooner than the technical, and fruitful, facets of the circulation turn into an educational fad within the usa. the themes incorporated are mainline experimental psychology from Wundt to Skinner, with its rather shortlived functionalist and Watsonian-behaviorist formulations; holistic psychology from Brentano via Stumpf, Husserl, and Goldstein to Maslow, Rogers, and modern "third strength" psychology; and the psychoanalytic version, for which the one paradigm is Freud himself. Preeminence is given to mental paradigms, for the reason that their material lies closest to the classical philosophical culture from which "philosophical anthropology" emerged. (This e-book is, within the bottom line, a prolegomenon to an articulated philosophical anthropo logy. ) Sociological versions also are thought of: the "classical" culture from Comte to the current, and Marxist anthropology from the manu scripts of 1844 to the current. The structuralist version, from Durkheim to Chomsky, is additionally thought of, because it cuts throughout and offers new dimensions to the entire foregoing versions. The essay is, moment, a phenomenological critique of those historico theoretical considerations.
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Extra info for Models of Man: A Phenomenological Critique of Some Paradigms in the Human Sciences
A remembrance of this tradition, particularly Brentano's conviction of the complementarity of what we would call the "inside view" and the "outside view," might solve the philosophical problem of the third force today. The solution of the philosophical problem might also provide a solution to the scientific problem; for here again it has been the phenomenological philosophers who have helped explicitate what sort of being is human being when released from his status as a simple object in the world.
A Kurt Goldstein, The Organism, New York, 1937. 13 36 THE HOLISTIC MODEL connection between Brentano's psychology and HusserI's phenomenology is becoming clearer year by year. HusserI's use of the idea of consciousness as "consciousness of" made it possible for him, early in his career, to make the breakthrough distinction between "objective" time and the constitution of temporality in human consciousness. 15 Heidegger went even farther and attempted to present "an interpretation of human existence in terms of temporality ...
Science has further attempted to do so, and has so far failedat least for third force psychology. What science and philosophy have positively gained in the explicitation of our primordial experiencing cannot be negated-unless scientific and philosophical elaboration become substitutes for that originary intuition of reality. What is being urged here, in support of the constitution of a holistic paradigm of human being, is the possible complementarity of scientific verification and philosophical reflection, together with a disciplined subjectivity which could make possible the conscious elucidation of primordial experiencing, and a transcendental focus which could make evident the a priori conditions of possibility of that elucidation.