Handbook of Magnetic Materials, Volume 17 by K.H.J. Buschow

By K.H.J. Buschow

Quantity 17 of the guide at the houses of Magnetic fabrics, because the previous volumes, has a twin function. As a textbook it really is meant to be of advice to those that desire to be brought to a given subject within the box of magnetism with out the necessity to learn the giant quantity of literature released. As a piece of reference it truly is meant for scientists energetic in magnetism learn. To this twin function, quantity 17 of the guide consists of topical overview articles written by way of best experts. In each one of those articles an intensive description is given in graphical in addition to in tabular shape, a lot emphasis being put on the dialogue of the experimental fabric within the framework of physics, chemistry and fabric technology. It presents the readership with novel traits and achievements in magnetism. *composed of topical overview articles written via prime specialists *intended to be of tips to people who desire to be brought to a given subject within the box of magnetism *as a piece of reference it really is meant for scientists energetic in magnetism learn *provide the readership with novel tendencies and achievements in magnetism

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16) using the definition given in Eq. (8), yielding TMR = 2PL PR /[1 – PL PR + Ginelastic (T )/G(T )]. This explains the reduction of TMR with temperature whenever a nonzero inelastic tunneling term is present. Apart from that, also the polarization PL,R itself is depending on temperature which is shown theoretically by MacDonald et al. (1998). Due to the presence of thermally excited spin waves the polarization in the Julliere formula can be effectively written as P (T ) = P0 [m(T )/m0 ] with m(T ) the saturation moment at the interface of the ferromagnetic layer with the barrier, and P0 and m0 the zero-temperature polarization and magnetic moment, respectively.

Open circles are the average switching fields with applied fields swept quasi-statically. Closed circles are data on the same bit cells, but now with magnetic field pulses with 20 ns duration. Adapted from Slaughter et al. (2002). switch the magnetization of the free layer by sending current through the word and bit lines of the MRAM array (see Fig. , Lu et al. (1999); Boeve et al. (1999); Sousa and Freitas (2000); Engel et al. (2002); Slaughter et al. (2002); de Boeck et al. (2002); Gerrits et al.

Such a growth mode is intrinsically induced by the layer on which the aluminum is deposited and can vary with the bottom layer material and with deposition technique. For example, Ando et al. (2000b) have shown by atomic-force-microscopy measurements that the roughness of aluminum can be reduced with 80% by replacing the aluminum buffer layer under the bottom electrode by Pt. The deposition parameters and characteristics of the deposition facility can play a huge role. For instance, a small amount of surface contamination can induce a different growth mode of the aluminum layer.

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