By Anshel J. Schiff
Contemporary average and robust California earthquakes exhibit that components of electrical energy platforms are very susceptible to harm. so much harm is because of the failure of porcelain parts in high-voltage substation apparatus, even if, functionality is usually strongly prompted by way of particular apparatus designs and install practices. harm to varied lifelines and constructions has impaired the functionality of a few conversation and keep watch over platforms after earthquakes. This guide concerns ways to enhance the earthquake reaction of electrical energy structures. It offers with significant strength procedure parts - energy producing stations, transmission and distribution strains, substations, process communications and keep watch over, and ancillary amenities and services. a wide component of the record is dedicated to high-voltage substations, as this can be the place so much energy procedure harm has been centred. the themes contain: resources and results of earthquakes; evaluation of earthquake functionality of strength platforms and amenities; method of enhanced earthquake functionality; substations; transmission and distribution traces and help buildings; energy producing amenities; procedure regulate; communique platforms; and ancillary amenities and services
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Additional resources for Guide to improved earthquake performance of electric power systems
L. Coffman. 1993. Seismicity of the United States, 1568-1989. USGS Professional Paper 1527. 10 EARTHQUAKE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS boundaries. However, the overall motion of the plates continues, so that the stress at the locked boundaries increases. This process continues until the stress approaches the strength of the rock, at which time there is a sudden rupture and slipping across the rupture releases pent-up strain energy. The release of the strain energy creates seismic waves that radiate away from the rupture zone.
Earthquake-induced vibrations have caused massive failures of porcelain members used in equipment (Figure 2-5), have damaged structures (Figure 2-6), and have caused poorly anchored transformers to slide from the supports and tip over (Figure 2-7). Outside of California, there are very few strong-motion earthquake records from significant earthquakes. Many of the records obtained in California show that ground motion can be sensitive to site conditions. Utilities with important facilities for which soil conditions may influence seismic exposure at the site should maintain a strong-motion instrument at the site.
Knowledge of earthquakes in California has been evolving since the 1920s. Since 1933, a stronger impetus has been given to the seismic design of power facilities. This has been a slow process as changes in design take a long time to be reflected in most facilities in the field. However, the vast majority of facilities subjected to earthquakes since 1970 have had significantly higher seismic specifications (particularly anchorage of substation equipment) than most such facilities outside of California.