By P. Cairney, D. Studlar, H. Mamudu
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Extra resources for Global tobacco control : power, policy, governance and transfer
Policy change follows a mutually-reinforcing process of increased attention, venue shift and shifting policy images. As people come to understand the nature of a policy problem in a different way, then more groups become interested and involved. The more external involvement there is, then the greater likelihood of a further shift of the policy image, as new ideas are discussed and different policy solutions are proposed by a larger array of participants. Chapter 3 identiﬁes this broad shift within tobacco policy networks in most developed countries, while Chapter 5 outlines the process in detail for the case study of the UK.
For example, Lijphart (1999: 2) highlights the role of formal institutional structures by arguing that there are two basic models of democratic political system design: those that concentrate power in the hands of a few who claim to represent the many (majoritarian) and those that ‘share, disperse, and limit power’ (consensus). In a majoritarian democracy the ﬁrst-past-the-post voting system can result in a majority of seats in the legislature to a party with only a plurality of the popular vote.
The ability of groups to set the policy agenda and control the policy image is linked strongly to their ability to restrict participation. Those excluded from monopolies have an interest in challenging the policy image. This may come from within, by ensuring that new ideas or evidence force a shift in government attention. If that attention is stiﬂed, groups attempt to expand the scope of conﬂict and promote their deﬁnition of a problem to a more sympathetic venue. Policy change follows a mutually-reinforcing process of increased attention, venue shift and shifting policy images.