Global tobacco control : power, policy, governance and by P. Cairney, D. Studlar, H. Mamudu

By P. Cairney, D. Studlar, H. Mamudu

The first significant ebook via political scientists explaining worldwide tobacco keep an eye on coverage. It identifies a heritage of minimum tobacco regulate then charts the level to which governments have regulated tobacco within the glossy period. It identifies significant coverage swap from the post-war interval and makes use of theories of public coverage to aid clarify the change.

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Policy change follows a mutually-reinforcing process of increased attention, venue shift and shifting policy images. As people come to understand the nature of a policy problem in a different way, then more groups become interested and involved. The more external involvement there is, then the greater likelihood of a further shift of the policy image, as new ideas are discussed and different policy solutions are proposed by a larger array of participants. Chapter 3 identifies this broad shift within tobacco policy networks in most developed countries, while Chapter 5 outlines the process in detail for the case study of the UK.

For example, Lijphart (1999: 2) highlights the role of formal institutional structures by arguing that there are two basic models of democratic political system design: those that concentrate power in the hands of a few who claim to represent the many (majoritarian) and those that ‘share, disperse, and limit power’ (consensus). In a majoritarian democracy the first-past-the-post voting system can result in a majority of seats in the legislature to a party with only a plurality of the popular vote.

The ability of groups to set the policy agenda and control the policy image is linked strongly to their ability to restrict participation. Those excluded from monopolies have an interest in challenging the policy image. This may come from within, by ensuring that new ideas or evidence force a shift in government attention. If that attention is stifled, groups attempt to expand the scope of conflict and promote their definition of a problem to a more sympathetic venue. Policy change follows a mutually-reinforcing process of increased attention, venue shift and shifting policy images.

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