By Ronald A. Nelson
Geologists, engineers, and petrophysicists enthusiastic about hydrocarbon creation from clearly fractured reservoirs will locate this publication a precious instrument for acquiring pertinent rock facts to guage reserves and optimize good place and function. Nelson emphasizes geological, petrophysical, and rock mechanics to counterpoint different reviews of the topic that use good logging and classical engineering approaches.This good equipped, up to date version encompasses a wealth of box and laboratory facts, case histories, and useful recommendation. a good how-to-guide for an individual operating with fractured or hugely anisotropic reservoirsProvides real-life illustrations via case histories and box and laboratory information
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Extra info for Geologic analysis of naturally fractured reservoirs
Along these lines, regional fracture trends have been used by Engelder and Geiser (1980) to map paleostress fields on a regional scale. The origin of regional fractures is obscure. Many theories have been proposed, ranging from plate tectonics to earth tides (fatigue); however, none have proven conclusive. At present, they are considered to be due to the application of external or surface forces. They are probably developed with respect to vertical earth movements, but their distribution indicates that the scale of this movement is much larger in areal extent than anything we see in local structures.
Figure 1–14 shows a mud pan with about 1 m of relief from its top edge to the bottom of the evaporating pan. The clay was saturated with water when this pan began as a small water pool. Upon drying, the clay desiccated and contracted upon the loss of water. In the center of the pan, contraction created tension fractures with a polygonal pattern or distribution on the surface. The center of the pan was flat and contracted equally in all azimuths. However, as seen in Figure 1–14, at the edges of the pan where the clay surface experiences dip (toward the center of the pan), the polygonal pattern of tension fractures gives way to an orthogonal pattern; two fracture directions perpendicular to the surface with one in the local dip directions and one in the local strike direction.
At a large scale (the entire flank) most or all of the elements of the total fracture pattern of the fold would be expressed on a strike histogram or pole plot of all fractures. However, not all elements will be expressed at every point on the fold. In other folds, the distribution of orientations tends to be more regular (Figure 1–9). The difference is that each fold has uniqueness in its strain pattern during folding. The distribution of various elements of the fold-related fracture geometry that are utilized on the structure during deformation will vary.