General linguistics and Indo-European reconstruction by Frederik H H Kortlandt

By Frederik H H Kortlandt

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Driver, who characterized the predicative participle as an expression of continuous/durative aspect; see Driver 1892: §135; cf. Joosten 1989: 129 n. 6. Since then scholars have laid special emphasis on its tenseless character and aspectual characteristics (cf. Joüon 1965: §121; Bergsträsser 1918– 1929: vol. II, §13e–h). S. Smith 1999: 278–88. 50 See Hoftijzer 1991: 645–47 on the necessity of correlating the verbal system with morphologically nominal forms used in the verbal system. 51 On the similarity of the participle to ‫יקטל‬, but with the stronger durative semantics see Waltke and O’Connor 1990: 624; Joüon and Muraoka 2006: §121h.

3 below. 7 See Comrie 1976: 5; Smith 2009: 7–25. 8 The modern aspect theory is typically represented by the two-component theory of aspect of C. Smith 1997: 1–3: situation types (state vs. event, as activity, accomplishment, semelfactive, achievement) vs. viewpoint aspects (perfective, imperfective, and neutral). See C. ” 9 Cf. Mey 1998: 599: “Mood and modality are important pragmatic components of natural language;” cf. Bussman 1996: 307–308 and Nuyts 2006. For formal and typological treatment of modal categories in natural languages see Palmer 2001; de Haan 2006.

88 In addition to the traditional ‘historical theory’ of the BH verb, which provided an interpretative framework for BH verbal morphology and syntax from the perspective of comparative Semitics,89 two other attitudes have gained prominence in recent research: the inner-biblical diachronic study of verbal forms and the grammaticalization approach. 94 In my view, these 88 On the problems of historical syntax, especially in application to Semitic languages, see Pat-El 2008: 9–18. On the relevance of historical syntax to BH verb studies, see Joosten 2012a: 71–78.

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