Fundamentals of Marine Acoustics by Jerald W. Caruthers (Eds.)

By Jerald W. Caruthers (Eds.)

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I0 _---_ ... - 5- -10 7- 10- 7- 15.. 15 - - + - 2 0 10- -20 15- 20 - -30 15- -40 20- 4o - 90 50 30-: 60 - 50 30 - - 60 kHz In. In. 40 - 50 60 90"- - 30 40 - - go0 50"Deg Fig. 23. J. Urick. , 1967. Used with permission of McGraw-Hill Book Company. 49 Receiver directivity index Associated with the beam pattern is a quantity called the directivity index. This quantity is a measure of the ability of a transducer t o discriminate against an isotropic noise in favor of a plane wave signal. If 3 represents an isotropic noise power per unit solid angle, the mean square voltage produced by a non-directional hydrophone in the field is: xond = constant ”!

The total energy of the explosion and the volume of the charge are both proportional to the weight W . As a result of the latter proportionality, an appropriate scaling factor for linear measures is W1l3. R. S. Navy Dept. Bur. Ordnance NAVORD Rept. 478 (1949). 32 And the total energy flux density is given when t + -. 78 W1l3 The bubble pulses have the form of an exponential rise in pressure followed by a symmetric exponential decay. Each pressure peak in succeeding bubble pulses reduces by a factor of about 1/5.

D. Baker, 15 March 1962. 23) Note that the beam pattern is always in the interval zero to one and the log beam pattern is always zero or less. Although arrays will not be discussed until the next chapter, we will now derive a formula for the beam pattern of a discrete point line array. After the formula is obtained we will let the separation between elements go to zero and obtain the beam pattern for a continuous line transducer. For this development consider the diagram of Fig. 21. m = m = m = Fig.

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