By G. Cello, B. D. Malamud, Editors
Within the Earth Sciences, the concept that of fractals and scale invariance is well-recognized in lots of common gadgets. notwithstanding, using fractals for spatial and temporal analyses of usual dangers has been much less used (and approved) within the Earth Sciences. This booklet brings jointly twelve contributions that emphasize the function of fractal analyses in average possibility learn, together with landslides, wildfires, floods, catastrophic rock fractures and earthquakes. a wide selection of spatial and temporal fractal-related ways and strategies are utilized to 'natural' information, experimental info, and computing device simulations. those ways contain probabilistic chance research, cellular-automata types, spatial analyses, temporal variability, prediction, and self-organizing behaviour. the most goals of this quantity are to give present learn on fractal analyses as utilized to ordinary dangers, and to stimulate the interest of complex Earth technological know-how scholars and researchers within the use of fractals analyses for the higher realizing of usual dangers.
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Additional resources for Fractal Analysis for Natural Hazards - Special Publication No 261 (Geological Society Special Publication)
G. & CRAWFORD, B. R. 1994. Microseismic properties of a homogeneous sandstone during fault nucleation and frictional sliding. International Geophysical Journal, 119, 219-230. LIN, A. 2001. S-C fabrics developed in cataclasitic rocks from the Nojima fault zone, Japan and their implications for tectonic history. Journal of Structural Geology, 23, 1167-1178. LOCKNER, D. , BYERLEE, J. , PONOMAREV, A. & SIDORIN, A. 1991. Quasistatic fault growth and shear fracture energy in granite. Nature, 350, 39-42.
Is there any scale dependence of permeability as there is a scale dependence of connectivity? What are the characteristic flow structures? Is there any evolution of the relevant flow pattern with scale? Is there any homogenization scale? We address these issues from the main results obtained by de Dreuzy et al. (2001a, b, c) on twodimensional random synthetic networks with the 37 following assumptions on fracture length and aperture distributions. Fracture transmissivity A fracture is an open void or a zone of high permeability, which is characterized by a transmissivity value tf, which is the permeability integral over fracture thickness (or aperture) (Hsieh 1998).
In this spirit, we focus on some key issues both of theoretical interest, to understand the flow processes in fractured media, and practical interest, to design appropriate modelling frameworks for the network equivalent permeability: (1) (2) (3) How does connectivity influence permeability? What is the effect of the connection length and more generally of the geometrical network structure on permeability? Is there any scale dependence of permeability as there is a scale dependence of connectivity?