Environmental Geology, 9th Edition by Carla W. Montgomery

By Carla W. Montgomery

Environmental Geology, 9th variation, offers the scholar with a extensive evaluation of environmental geology. The textual content appears to be like either at how the earth constructed into its current situation and the place issues appear to be relocating for the long run. it truly is was hoping that this information will give you the scholar with an invaluable starting place for discussing and comparing particular environmental concerns, in addition to for constructing rules approximately how the issues may be solved.

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3. The 21 charge of one electron exactly balances the 11 charge of a single proton. The number of protons in the nucleus determines what chemical element that atom is. Every atom of hydrogen contains one proton in its nucleus; every oxygen atom contains eight protons; every carbon atom, six; every iron atom, twentysix; and so on. The characteristic number of protons is the atomic number of the element. Elements and Isotopes With the exception of the simplest hydrogen atoms, all nuclei contain neutrons, and the number of neutrons is similar to or somewhat greater than the number of protons.

The two rarer isotopes are carbon-13 (six protons plus seven neutrons) and carbon-14 (six protons plus eight neutrons). Chemically, all behave alike. The human body cannot, for instance, distinguish between sugar containing carbon-12 and sugar containing carbon-13. Other differences between isotopes may, however, make a particular isotope useful for some special purpose. Some isotopes are radioactive, meaning that over time, their nuclei will decay (break down) into nuclei of other elements, releasing energy.

No two minerals are identical in both respects, though they may be the same in one. For example, diamond and graphite (the “lead” in a lead pencil) are chemically the same—both are made up of pure carbon. Their physical properties, however, are vastly different because of the differences in their internal crystalline structures. In a diamond, each carbon atom is firmly bonded to every adjacent carbon atom in every direction by covalent bonds. In graphite, the carbon atoms are bonded strongly in two dimensions into sheets, but the sheets are only weakly held together in the third dimension.

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