Encyclopedia of Volcanoes by Haraldur, ed. Sigurdsson

By Haraldur, ed. Sigurdsson

Volcanoes are absolutely the most remarkable and awe-inspiring positive factors of the actual global. Our paradoxical fascination with them stems from their majestic attractiveness and robust, if occasionally lethal, destructiveness.Notwithstanding the super advances in volcanology considering precedent days, a few of the secret surrounding volcanic eruptions is still at the present time. The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes summarizes our current wisdom of volcanoes. via its thematic association round the melting of the earth, it offers a finished resource of knowledge at the multidisciplinary affects of volcanic eruptions - either the harmful and the valuable features.

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65) wrote on volcanism in his work on natural philosophy, Questiones Naturales. He attributed volcanic eruptions in part to the movement of winds within the Earth, struggling to break out to the surface, thus in part following Aristotle. But his most notable and T HE H ISTORY truly original contribution to theories of volcanism is his proposal that the heat liberated from volcanoes is derived from the combustion of sulfur and other flammable substances within the Earth—an idea that was to have many adherents into and even beyond the Middle Ages.

Dolomieu Leopold von Buch Lazzaro Spallanzani 5th cent. C. D. D. D. D. 1627 1632 1650 1665 1670 1751 1761 1763 1776 1783 1785 1790 1790 1799 1794 John Playfair Robert Kennedy Humphry Davy Pierre Cordier A. von Humboldt George P. -D. Poisson 1835 1835 Gustav Bischof 1837 William Hopkins Robert Bunsen S. Waltershausen 1839 1851 1853 Robert Mallet Osmond Fisher John Judd 1858 1881 1881 Carl Barus Alfred Lacroix Frank Perret Alfred Wegener Arthur Holmes Arthur Holmes Arthur Holmes Norman L. Bowen 1893 1902 1906 1912 1915 1916 1928 1928 Eruptions caused by great winds inside the Earth Combustion as a source of heat in Earth First scientific expedition to study an eruption First volcanic eyewitness account, Vesuvius eruption Basaltic rock in Iceland recognized as of lava flow origin Explosive eruptions compared to combustion of gunpowder ‘‘Fermentation’’ chemical reactions of sulfur generate terrestrial heat Incandescent Earth core as source of volcanic heat First global map of the distribution of volcanoes on Earth First experiments with molten rocks; melts Etna lava Identifies rocks at Volvic in Auvergne, France, as lava Extracts crystals from glass slags; products of glass furnaces compared to products of volcanoes Prismatic basalt columns in Clermont of volcanic origin Pioneer in field volcanology; recognizes dikes and magmatic veins Volcanic eruptions have atmospheric effects and can cool Earth Recognizes intrusions of magma into the crust of the Earth Melting and crystallization experiments on basalt Some sediments are stratified and consolidated volcanic ash Minerals in lavas formed by crystallization from magma Earliest chemical analysis of volcanic rocks Water vapor is the dominant magmatic gas; causes explosions Speculates that change in pressure affects melting of rocks First complete chemical analysis of basalts Exothermic reactions of alkalis provide volcanic heat Identifies and analyzes the mineral components of lavas Linear arrangement of volcanes related to deep-seated tectonics Decompression melting can produce magma in Earth’s interior Chemical differentiation produces variety of magma types Crystal settling is the agent of magmatic differentiation Recognizes that the high pressure in the deep Earth would lead to solidification of rock at higher temperature Demonstrates experimentally that the transformation from solid rock to magma results in increase in volume Decompression melting as a process in generation of magmas Magma mixing produces intermediate magma types; recognizes that magmas are solutions Water vapor expansion causes magma fragmentation and pyroclastic; recognizes importance of submarine volcanic rock formations Map of global distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes Proposes convection currents within the Earth Volcanic recycling of water from volcanoes to atmosphere, to oceans, and back to magma through solid Earth First to determine the melting curve of basalt as a function of pressure Documentation of the eruption of Montagne Pele´e Pioneer in application of technology to study of volcanic phenomena Theory of continental drift Calculates a temperature profile for the Earth based on radioactive generation of heat Basaltic magma generated by partial melting of periodotite Decompression melting and magma generation by mantle convection Fractional crystallization theory developed to explain magma range 18 T HE H ISTORY cleaning ritual following a case of contagious disease in the home.

It is estimated that the use of geothermal energy alone is saving imported oil costs of about $560 per year per person (Chapter 76). With the modern technology of deep drilling, the exploitation of this cheap and clean energy resource from the interior of the Earth does not FIGURE 5 Volcanic eruptions can change the climate. The great Tambora volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815 led to a shortterm global climate change that dramatically shortened the growing season in New England the following year.

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