Current status of sugarcane research in India by A. K. Tiwari, M. Lal, A. K. Singh

By A. K. Tiwari, M. Lal, A. K. Singh

Sugarcane is likely one of the most crucial vegetation commercially grown in approximately a hundred and fifteen nations of the realm. India is an incredible manufacturer in addition to shopper of sugar on this planet and has produced approximately 25MT of sugar from 360MT sugarcane in 2011-13, contributing approximately 15 percentage of the complete sugar construction on this planet. A quantum of sugar is made from sugarcane, besides the fact that, this crop faces a couple of difficulties reminiscent of low Read more...

summary: Sugarcane is among the most crucial vegetation commercially grown in approximately a hundred and fifteen international locations of the realm. India is an immense manufacturer in addition to client of sugar on the earth and has produced approximately 25MT of sugar from 360MT sugarcane in 2011-13, contributing approximately 15 percentage of the full sugar construction on this planet. A quantum of sugar is made out of sugarcane, although, this crop faces a couple of difficulties corresponding to low cane productiveness, biotic and abiotic stresses, excessive price of cultivation, post-harvest losses, and occasional sugar restoration. In India, sugarcane study started at the beginning of the nineteenth

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Somatic cells with good embryogenic potential are ideal targets for integration of transgenes since each somatic embryo has the potential to become an individual plant. Various explants types (axillary buds, apical meristems, immature inflorescences, leaf segments) have been used successfully to regenerate full plants in sugarcane indicating that a wide range of totipotent target tissues are available for genetic transformation. Several reports on nuclear transformation of sugarcane are available, which involve different methods for transformation like, particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-mediated method [20] and electroporation [21].

No significant difference was obtained when the number of blue loci on different explants was counted. In all the further experiments, both the gene guns and particle types were used, while only making use of the mono adaptor with the PDS-1000/He system. Double and triple shots on the same explants were also included in the transformation experiments. Embracing Biotechnology Methods for Crop Improvement Research ... 41 Figure 2 a-n: Representation of genetic transformation in sugarcane. a-f: A leaf based regeneration system for sugarcane: a- Seven months old sugarcane plants in greenhouse; b- Top of sugarcane plant, containing shoot apical meristem; c- Leaf rolls dissected and transverse sections prepared under aseptic conditions; d- Leaf roll discs placed on callus induction; eShoot formation on shoot induction medium (upper half of picture)/Embryogenic callus formation on callus (lower half of picture) f- Multiple shoots obtained from regenerating plant; g-f: Gene guns used for transformation: g- Biolistic gene gun (PDS/He 1000); h- Particle inflow gun; i- leaf roll disc explants on osmotic medium before bombardment; j- Transient GUS expression seen in the leaf roll disc explants; k- Shoot regeneration in control (wild-type explants on regeneration medium without antibiotic) plate; l- transformed explants on selection (regeneration medium with geneticin 75 mg/L); m-nuclear transformation vector pAHC25 used for studying transient GUS expression in sugarcane.

5. 6. 7. Moisture stress during formative phase coinciding with summer Water logged conditions during September-October months Crop lodging due to cyclones during North East Monsoon Extension of cane area to marginal and sub marginal lands Increase in cane area under rainfed condition Incidence of insect pests and diseases Poor ratoon cane management PRESENT LINE OF WORK OF SUGARCANE IN DIFFERENT RESEARCH STATION IN ANDHRA PRADESH              Identification of sugar rich clones of short and mid duration Clones tolerant to moisture stress and quality deterioration Clones tolerant to biotic stresses like red rot, smut, and YLD Clones tolerant to ESB, Internodal borer, Scale and other sucking pests Rain fed sugarcane production technologies Low cost sugarcane production technologies like bud chip planting, spaced planting, irrigation methods which include surface and sub surface drip along with fertigation Standardization of micropropagation protocol for mass production of sugarcane planting material Sugarcane inter cropping Organic farming in sugarcane with different organics and factory effluents Verification of STCR equation for fertilizer recommendation Evaluation of varieties for post harvest deterioration and jaggery Modules for powder/ granular jaggery Jaggery research using organic farming, herbal clarificants and fortification with vitamins and minerals Table 2.

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