By Ivan V. Markov
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Extra info for Crystal Growth for Beginners
The first is to assume that the electron and ion temperatures are constant in space and time, with a value determined by two final equations: these could be as simple as giving a value for Te and Ti ; in the next section, for instance, Ti is set to zero and it is shown that the electron temperature can be effectively set by the system size and the gas pressure, based on a global balance. Many problems, such as the transport theories developed in Chapter 3, use this isothermal approximation for which changes in pressure are ascribed only to changes in density: ∇p = kT ∇n.
In particular, CF4 , Cl2 and Ar are used as examples. In the interests of clarity, later chapters of this book will not include the detailed effects of plasma chemistry, whether in the volume or at a surface; it is therefore important to use this discussion to reflect from time to time on what effect the inclusion of plasma chemistry would have on any given situation described later on. Dissociation into neutral fragments The feedstock gas is dissociated by electron impact to produce neutral reactive fragments known as radicals.
Therefore, in many instances, although the power absorbed by electrons is localized, the electron temperature is in fact almost independent of the space coordinate. The regime when λε is much larger than the system size is that of non-local electron kinetics. The first kinetic theory for the non-local regime in DC glow discharges was proposed by Bernstein and Holstein in 1954 , and revisited by Tsendin in 1974 . It was later used in RF capacitive and inductive discharges, as described in Kolobov and Godyak  and Kortshagen et al.