By Sarah G. Thomason
Providing linguistic and ancient sketches of lesser-known touch languages, this paintings goals to give a contribution to a extra balanced view of the main dramatic result of language touch. The 12 case experiences supply testimony opposed to the view that every one touch languages are pidgins and creoles with maximally uncomplicated and basically exact grammars. They exhibit that a few touch languages are neither pidgins nor creoles, and they can exhibit significant structural variety and complexity; additionally they express that two-language touch occasions may give upward thrust to pidgins, specially while entry to a objective language is withheld through its audio system. The chapters are prepared by way of language sort: 3 specialize in pidgins (Hiri Motu, Pidgin Delaware and Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin); one on a suite of pidgins and creoles (Arabic-based touch languages); one at the query of early pidginization and/or creolization in Swahili; and 5 on bilingual combined languages (Michif, Media Lengua and Callahuaya, and Mednyj Aleut and Ma'a). The objective of this quantity is to aid offset the conventional emphasis on pidgins and creoles that arose as an instantaneous result of touch with Europeans, beginning within the Age of Exploration.
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Extra info for Contact languages: a wider perspective (Creole Language Library)
1969. The peopling of Central Papua: Some preliminary observations. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics B-9. . 1975. "A Koita grammar sketch and vocabulary". Studies in languages of Central and South-East Papua, ed. by T. E. Dutton, 281-412. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics C-29. Dutton, Tom. 1980. "A Note on the Origin of the Motu term hirï". Kivung 12/2: 189-206. Dutton, Tom. 1985. Police Motu: iena sivarai [= its story]. Port Moresby: University of Papua New Guinea Press. Dutton, Tom. 1986. "More on Simplified Motu".
But without further evidence it is not possible to make out a convincing case for the primacy of either of these two sources over the other. Indeed, it is highly likely that contact-induced changes and simplifying principles conspired with each other to give the observed results. Where Hiri Motu differs from Simplified Motu, however, it must be the case that Hiri Motu developed those features independently after it diverged from Simplified Motu, that is, after Simplified Motu began to be used in a wider context.
No tense No, but Koriki No, but baimbai such use in distinctions in material can be used in similar way available materials verbs, these being used in similar way indicated by although future tense is mostly indicated by adverbs of time such as aire "later, -varia on verbs afterwards", or vevere "tomorrow" for future; mamaro "now" for present. There is no evidence for past tense. If there is no adverb of time in sentence the tense can be read as past, present or future 14. Uses vadaeni, noho and gwauraia after verb to indicate completed, continuous, and intentive/inceptive aspect No evidence of use of noho, but vada is used before verbs to indicate completed action (as in Motu) and gwauraia after verb (as in HM) to indicate intention No, uses kaolaia ?