Carbonate Facies in Geologic History by B. A., M. A., Ph.D. James L. Wilson (auth.)

By B. A., M. A., Ph.D. James L. Wilson (auth.)

Since 1950 geologists have discovered extra in regards to the foundation and lithification of carbonate sediments than in the entire earlier years of the heritage of technological know-how. this can be precise in all of the different fields of carbonate geology: the examine of modern environments, marine zoology and botany, natural geochemistry, hint aspect and isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, microfacies of depositional environments, and trace-fossil and sedimentary constitution research. A synthesis of this new wisdom is simply starting to be formulated. the aim of this quantity is to introduce the complicated pupil and petroleum explorationist largely to at least one vital point of this examine: to a few of the foundations of carbonate geology which could serve to interpret the depositional environments of old strata and to raised outline their sequences and styles. bankruptcy I is a quick assessment of ideas of carbonate sedimentation. (For an entire dialogue of the mineralogy, geochemistry, and diagenesis of carbonates besides a evaluation of Holocene sediments, one might consult with Bathurst's (1971) and Milliman's (1974) texts.) bankruptcy II stories stratigraphic and paleotectonic options and discusses a common version for carbonate deposition. bankruptcy III bargains an summary of carbonate petrography, focusing on lithologic descrip­ tion for the needs of environmental interpretation. For an extra assessment of this topic and perfect photomicrographs, Horowitz and Potter (1971) and Majewske (1969) might be used.

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II-7. Thickness of Lower Ordovician around North American craton. The great "halo" of shallow marine and intertidal carbonate portrayed is mainly depositional and its outward thickening forms platforms on all sides of the central cratonic axis develop on isolated highs in offshore basins, probably originating at lower sea level stands. Once started, they manage to maintain themselves, and grow upward through rapid accumulation in spite of considerable subsidence. Small examples are often termed pinnacle reefs.

Good· current circulation. Deep enough to be below normal wave base but intermittent storms affect the bottom sediments. 3. Basin margin or deep shelfmarginfacies (clinothem): Formed at toe of slope of carbonate producing shelf from material derived from the shelf. Depth, wave base conditions and oxygen level about that of facies 2. 4. Foreslope facies of carbonate platform (marine talus .. clinothem): Generally the slope is located above the lower limit of oxygenated water and from above to below wave base.

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