Analytical Determination of Nicotine and Related Compounds by J.W. Gorrod, P. Jacob III

By J.W. Gorrod, P. Jacob III

This ebook presents for the 1st time a unmarried accomplished resource of data at the analytical chemistry of nicotine and comparable alkaloids. The editors have introduced jointly scientists from academia and the tobacco to explain the state of the art of the chemistry and analytical equipment for dimension of nicotine. either the scope and element of the booklet are notable. Chapters describe the historical past, pharmacology and toxicology of nicotine, the biosynthesis of nicotine and different alkaloids within the tobacco plant, the overall chemistry of nicotine and the analytical methodologies which have been used to degree nicotine and comparable alkaloids in organic specimens, in tobacco and pharmaceutical items and in tobacco smoke. there's additionally a entire evaluate of the chemistry and toxicology of nicotine-derived nitrosamines, a huge classification of tobacco cancer agents.

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Analytical Determination of Nicotine and Related Compounds and their Metabolites

This e-book offers for the 1st time a unmarried complete resource of data at the analytical chemistry of nicotine and similar alkaloids. The editors have introduced jointly scientists from academia and the tobacco to explain the state of the art of the chemistry and analytical tools for size of nicotine.

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Extra info for Analytical Determination of Nicotine and Related Compounds and their Metabolites

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It was estimated that, over the life of the plant, nicotine turnover amounted to no more than about 33%. The authors contrasted their method, in which labeled nicotine newly synthesized from normal precursors was supplied to the intact plant, with the findings of Tso and Jeffrey [94], who supplied labeled nicotine to whole plants through the root, and with the results of Yoshida [95], who injected nicotine through the midrib. They suggested that such rapid metabolism perhaps reflected " . . " Gershenzon [96] has asserted that all attempts to measure turnover of alkaloids by directly administering the compound to the plant, rather than supplying normal precursors, are " .

Evidence was also obtained that larval survival diminished as alkaloid levels increased. These findings are consistent with the notion that nicotine, at least, confers protection against herbivory in a quantitative manner. The alkaloidal response is prompt and the product persists The time course of the alkaloidal response was characterized using hydroponically grown N. sylvestris [92]. ~SN-Nitrate at two different concentrations was added to the nutrient solution five hours before damaging leaves by multiple punctures with a pattern-wheel device.

The alkaloidal response is reduced by inhibitors of jasmonate synthesis and auxin Certain inhibitors of mammalian cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, applied in lanolin paste to the wounded area (pattern-tracing wheel) of damaged N. sylvestris leaves, can inhibit or arrest the alkaloidal response that would otherwise take place [106]. Causing no visible damage to leaves upon application, n-propylgallate (n-PG) and acetylsalicylic acid brought about nearly complete inhibition of the alkaloidal response, while partial inhibition followed application of salicylhydroxamic acid, methyl salicylate (MSA) and antipyrine.

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