By W. John Hutchins, Harold L. Somers
The interpretation of international language texts by means of pcs used to be one of many first projects that the pioneers of computing and synthetic intelligence set themselves. computing device translation is back turning into a major box of analysis and improvement because the desire for translations of technical and advertisement documentation is turning out to be way past the potential of the interpretation occupation. this can be the 1st textbook of laptop translation, delivering an entire path on either basic computing device translation platforms features and the computational linguistic foundations of the sector. laptop Translation assumes no past wisdom of the sector and offers the elemental historical past info to the linguistic and computational foundations of the topic. it really is a useful textual content for college students of computational linguistics, synthetic intelligence, normal language processing, and data technology.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Machine Translation
3 Feature-based representations In several sections above we have mentioned additional features — syntactic and semantic — which play a part in linguistic representation. In general, features can be represented as attributes with corresponding values, and as such are often called ‘attribute-value pairs’. Features can be used to represent almost everything we have discussed so far: ‘category’ can be an attribute with values such as ‘noun’, ‘verb’, ‘noun phrase’, etc; grammatical features such as ‘gender’, ‘number’, ‘tense’ are all possible attributes, with the expected range of values; ‘surface function’ might have values such as ‘subject’, ‘modifier’ and so on, while there might be a parallel attribute ‘deep function’, with the same range of values.
G. the Spanish and English systems developed at the Pan-American Health Organization (Washington, DC), and the systems designed by the Smart Corporation for Citicorp, Ford, and the Canadian Department of Employment and Immigration. Many of the Systran installations Further reading 9 are tailor-made for particular organisations (Aérospatiale, Dornier, NATO, General Motors). Nearly all these operational systems depend heavily on post-editing to produce acceptable translations. But pre-editing is also widespread: in some systems, for instance, operators are required, when inputting text, to mark word boundaries or even indicate the scope of phrases and clauses.
We will return to this question below. However the distinction between deep and surface syntactic functions is one which is generally accepted and understood. 3 Predicate-argument structure Syntactic relationships within sentences may also be described in terms of predicate-argument structures. This term refers to the traditional division of propositions in logic into predicates and arguments. A sentence such as (5a) above corresponds to the proposition run (boy), where the predicate run has a single argument boy; a sentence such as (8a) corresponds to gave (man, book, girl), a proposition with three arguments.