Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate by Marc A. Williams

By Marc A. Williams

Pt. 1. floor amendment concepts -- pt. 2. Analytical innovations and functions

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Allergens and respiratory pollutants: The role of innate immunity

Pt. 1. floor amendment strategies -- pt. 2. Analytical recommendations and purposes

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146–150) In very elegant in vitro culture studies, it has been clearly shown by confocal laser scanning, conventional transmission electron microscopy and other visualization approaches, that DC come into intimate contact with deposited particles in the lung. (148–150) Although the conducting airways and alveoli provide an otherwise intact physiological, structural and functional barrier through which micro- and nano-sized particulate matter cannot usually breach, it has been shown that such deposited particles are displaced and directly sampled by DC that gain access to the apical side of the epithelium by two separate mechanisms.

27, 28) The striking aspect of DC immune function is their highly efficient and prolific ability to capture soluble as well as particulate antigens, to efficiently respond to exogenous or endogenous microbial and inflammatory stimuli and present antigen to helper CD4+ or cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. 1 Hematopoietic development of myeloid precursors and dendritic cells. In the scheme shown, pluripotent progenitor cells undergo a series of cellular differentiation pathways such that cells of the myeloid lineage give rise to erythrocytes and platelets from the CFU-GEMM compartment (colony forming unit-granulocyte/erythrocute/monocyte/megakaryocyte).

In the context of pro-allergic inflammation in asthma and the proposed association of exposure to outdoor pollutant particles and the development An introduction to allergic inflammation 19 of allergic asthma, there are several features of ambient pollutant particles that are seen as “dangerous” by the innate immune system. This is particularly relevant in terms of the responsiveness of pulmonary DC to environmental ambient pollutant particles. Ambient particulate matter (APM) is a complex bioorganic and biophysical mixture of heavy and transition elements, semi-volatile and non-volatile organic and inorganic compounds, allergens, endotoxins, and other biologically active components that collectively provoke a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative response in the lung following exposure to such material.

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